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Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a very rare condition that either presents at birth with placental oedema or develops in the first year.
This condition may be familial with an autosomal recessive inheritance. It is more common in Scandanavia; males are affected as often as females.
This condition was previously fatal but now children can be offered dialysis and transplantation.
There may be antenatal diagnosis in at risk families from measurement of alpha fetoprotein levels, which are raised.