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Pregnant woman, or man, or child or young person under 16 years, or any person with recurrent upper UTI

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Recurrent urinary tract infections is defined as 3 or more episodes of urinary tract infection during a 12 month period (1).

Pregnant woman, or Man, or Child or young person under 16 years, or Any person with recurrent upper UTI

  • refer or seek specialist advice
  • if no improvement after behavioural and personal hygiene measures, consider a trial of daily antibiotic prophylaxis with specialist advice

General management (2,3)

First advise about behavioural and personal hygiene measures, and self-care (with D-mannose or cranberry products) to reduce the risk of UTI.

For postmenopausal women, if no improvement, consider vaginal oestrogen (review within 12 months).

For non-pregnant women, if no improvement, consider single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for exposure to a trigger (review within 6 months).

For non-pregnant women (if no improvement or no identifiable trigger) or with specialist advice for pregnant women, men, children or young people, consider a trial of daily antibiotic prophylaxis (review within 6 months).

Choice of antibiotic: people aged 16 years and over

First choice antibiotic 1,2

  • trimethoprim4
    • 200 mg single dose when exposed to a trigger, or 100 mg at night
  • OR

  • nitrofurantoin - if eGFR >=45 ml/minute5
    • 100 mg single dose when exposed to a trigger, or 50 to 100 mg at night

Second choice antibiotic

  • amoxicillin 6 500 mg single dose when exposed to a trigger, or 250 mg at night
  • cefalexin 500 mg single dose when exposed to a trigger, or 125 mg at night

  • 1 See BNF for appropriate use and dosing in specific populations, for example, hepatic impairment, renal impairment, pregnancy and breast-feeding.
  • 2 Choose antibiotics according to recent culture and susceptibility results where possible, with rotational use based on local policies. Select a different antibiotic for prophylaxis if treating an acute UTI.
  • 3 Doses given are by mouth using immediate-release medicines, unless otherwise stated.
  • 4 Teratogenic risk in first trimester of pregnancy (folate antagonist; BNF, August 2018). Manufacturers advise contraindicated in pregnancy (trimethoprim summary of product characteristics).
  • 5 Avoid at term in pregnancy; may produce neonatal haemolysis (BNF, August 2018)
  • 6 Amoxicillin is not licensed for preventing UTIs, so use for this indication would be off label. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. Informed consent should be obtained and documented.

Children under 3 months - Refer to paediatric specialist

Children aged 3 months and over (specialist advice only)

First choice

  • Trimethoprim4
    • 3 to 5 months, 2 mg/kg at night (maximum 100 mg per dose) or 12.5 mg at night
    • 6 months to 5 years, 2 mg/kg at night (maximum 100 mg per dose) or 25 mg at night
    • 6 to 11 years, 2 mg/kg at night (maximum 100 mg per dose) or 50 mg at night
    • 12 to 15 years, 100 mg at night

    • OR

  • Nitrofurantoin if eGFR >=45 ml/minute5
    • 3 months to 11 years, 1 mg/kg at night
    • 12 to 15 years, 50 to 100 mg at night

Children aged 3 months and over (specialist advice only)

Second choice

  • Cefalexin
    • 3 months to 15 years, 12.5 mg/kg at night (maximum 125 mg per dose)

    • OR

  • Amoxicillin6
    • 3 to 11 months, 62.5 mg at night;
    • 1 to 4 years, 125 mg at night;
    • 5 to 15 years, 250 mg at night

  • 1 See BNF for children (BNFC) for appropriate use and dosing in specific populations, for example, hepatic impairment and renal impairment.
  • 2 Choose antibiotics according to recent culture and susceptibility results where possible, with rotational use based on local policies. Select a different antibiotic for prophylaxis if treating an acute UTI. If 2 or more antibiotics are appropriate, choose the antibiotic with the lowest acquisition cost.
  • 3 The age bands apply to children of average size and, in practice, the prescriber will use the age bands in conjunction with other factors such as the severity of the condition and the child's size in relation to the average size of children of the same age. Doses given are by mouth using immediate release medicines, unless otherwise stated.
  • 4 Teratogenic risk in first trimester of pregnancy (folate antagonist; BNFC, August 2018). Manufacturers advise contraindicated in pregnancy (trimethoprim summary of product characteristics).
  • 5 Avoid at term in pregnancy; may produce neonatal haemolysis (BNFC, August 2018).
  • 6 Amoxicillin is not licensed for preventing UTIs, so use for this indication would be off label. The prescriber should follow relevant professional guidance, taking full responsibility for the decision. Informed consent should be obtained and documented. See the General Medical Council's Good practice in prescribing and managing medicines and devices for further information

Reference:


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