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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Possible investigations include:

  • FBC's - for anaemia

  • U+E's - ureteral obstruction occurs in 30% of stage III, 50% of stage IV

  • calcium - hypercalcaemia may occur in advanced disease, but not always due to bone involvement

  • liver function tests - abnormal if liver metastases

  • cone biopsy - a smear is pointless with a gross lesion

  • chest Xray - lung metastases seen in 5% of patients with advanced disease

  • cystoscopy and sigmoidoscopy - rarely reveal mucosal invasion except in advanced disease

  • intravenous pyelogram

  • CT scan

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The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


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