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MGUS patients have M proteins (IgG kappa or lambda; or IgA kappa or lambda) in the serum but without features of multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia, amyloidosis, or lymphoma (1).
In smouldering myeloma, patients have similar characteristics but may have more than 10% of marrow plasma cells (1)
MGSU can be seen in 2% of people older than 50 years (2) and around 1% to 2% of MGUS patients per year will progress to myeloma (most commonly), amyloidosis, lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The following criteria are used for the diagnosis of MGUS (all three are required):
* low is defined as serum M protein of 3.0 g per 100 ml (3).