Last reviewed 12/2022


  • arterial pulmonary hypertension
  • shunt reversal - Eisenmenger's syndrome

Less common:

  • ventricular septal rupture - usually with multiple defects. This accounts for 1-5% of peri-infarction deaths and 12% of all cardiac ruptures.
  • infective endocarditis - in children 5-14 years with VSD there is a 2% risk over 10 years; in adults there is 5-7% risk over 10 years
  • aortic incompetence - when there is a subarterial VSD. This rare complication is unusual in childhood but some studies have shown that a degree of aortic incompetence occurs in 10% of adult ventricular septal defects