neurological aetiology

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Neurological causes of velopharyngeal insufficiency include:

  • primary motor or neuromuscular disease:
    • congenital:
      • cerebral palsy
      • myotonias
    • acquired:
    • trauma (closed head injury)
      • cerebrovascular accident
      • progressive disease eg multiple sclerosis
  • motor association deficits: apraxia of speech
  • velopharyngeal mislearning eg profound sensorineural deafness

Last reviewed 01/2018