Last reviewed 01/2018

Causes include:

  • idiopathic and familial
  • electrolyte disturbances, particularly hyperkalaemia, or digoxin toxicity
  • congenital heart disease, particularly transposition of the great arteries, and especially after surgery
  • myocarditis
  • post infective, for example in endocardial fibroelastosis or rheumatic fever
  • associated with maternal connective tissue disease, especially systemic lupus erythematosus