Last reviewed 01/2018


  • viral - cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, german measles, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, coxsackie virus
  • bacterial - tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis, Lyme disease
  • fungi - candidiasis, histoplasmosis
  • parasites - toxoplasmosis, toxocariosis, onchoceriasis
  • congential infection with cytomegalovirus or toxoplasmosis


  • autoimmune - Behcet's disease, retinal vasculitis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
  • malignancy
  • unknown aetiology - sarcoidosis

The most common causes in the West are toxoplasmosis and Behcet's disease.