S2 (single)

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This may be present in:

  • a calcified aortic stenotic valve
  • pulmonary stenosis - here the P2 component may be soft
  • Fallot's tetralogy
  • Ebstein's anomaly
  • pericardial effusion
  • where pulmonary pressure approaches systemic blood pressure, for example in a large ventricular septal defect
  • other causes eg obesity, pulmonary emphysema

Last reviewed 01/2018