clinical features of primum defect

Last reviewed 01/2018

The clinical features include:

  • heart failure: this in infancy or childhood
  • pulmonary hypertension: especially in Downs syndrome - pulmonary ejection systolic murmur and mid-diastolic tricuspid murmur reflecting increased flow
  • cardiac enlargement
  • breathlessness at rest
  • Harrison's sulci
  • pink with normal pulses
  • apical pansystolic murmur: if mitral valve is incompetent