Last reviewed 01/2018

Indications for surgery include:

  • malignancy
  • large, retrosternal or nodular goitre
  • pressure symptoms eg. thoracic outlet obstruction
  • failure of other therapy:
    • refusal to comply with antithyroid drugs
    • intolerance eg. hypersensitivity to antithyroid drugs
  • the need for a quick and effective cure, for example in Grave's disease in the young, where the disease might be expected to continue for some years
  • impatient patient
  • demoralised patient