salient features of toxo, rubella and cyto

Last reviewed 06/2021

It can be useful to compare the three most common of the TORCH infections in the same place, since clinical circumstances and examinations place emphasis on the similarities and differences between them.

Features are as follows:

  • toxoplasmosis causes neurological damage, cerebral calcification, hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis
  • rubella causes congenital heart disease - principally patent ductus arteriorus and pulmonary stenosis - mental retardation, retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, purpura and microcephaly
  • cytomegalovirus causes in 10 to 20% hydrops, chorioretinitis and microcephaly, and in 80 to 90% less specific mental handicap and visual and hearing problems in later life