Last reviewed 01/2018

  • ECG - right axis deviation caused by right ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Chest radiology - reveals enlargement of the right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary artery, plethora of the pulmonary vessels. There may be a cottage loaf appearence of the heart, which occurs if the anomalous drainage is to the inomminate vein.

Ultrasound and cardiac catheterization may also be helpful in fully defining the lesion.