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Complications include:

  • impaired bone mineralisation leading to osteomalacia as a consequence of the buffering of H+ by bone

  • infants may present with failure to thrive and repeated vomiting

  • nephrocalcinosis and urinary stones are caused by:
    • hypercalciuria
    • alkaline urine - calcium phosphate tends to precipitate out in alkaline urine
    • low urinary citrate excretion

Last reviewed 01/2018