Last reviewed 01/2018

The common causes of cardiac tamponade are bleeding and effusion:

Pericardial haemorrhage may be due to:

  • trauma
  • aortic dissection
  • surgery
  • perforation of a coronary artery during angiography

Pericardial effusions which are large enough to cause tamponade are usually due to malignant disease; other causes of a pericardial effusions rarely cause tamponade.