Last reviewed 09/2022

Paraproteins are immunoglobulins of a single, unique structure i.e. produced by a single clone, which are present in sufficient amounts to be seen on serum electrophoresis. A sharp band is seen because all of the molecules have an identical structure. Examples include:


  • monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance


  • Myeloma
  • Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia
  • Heavy chain disease

Other causes of paraproteinaemias include:

  • paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria - Donath-Landsteiner antibody
  • cold haemagluttin disease - IgM paraprotein
  • warm antibody haemolytic anaemia
  • chronic lymphatic leukaemia - IgG or IgM paraprotein