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2256 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 21/4/2021)


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gallbladder carcinoma

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Carcinoma of the gallbladder is rare in Western countries but more common in India and Mexico. It is associated with gallstones in up to 85% of cases, with the risk of malignancy increasing with the length of time that gallstones have been present. It is found in less than 1% of gallbladder operations. The tumour presents predominantly in women, and patients are usually in their seventies.

The majority of primary tumours are adenocarcinomas, either scirrhous (60%), papillary (25%), or mucoid (15%). Spread of tumour occurs early by direct invasion of the liver and hilar structures and by metastases to the common duct nodes, liver and lungs. Most symptomatic patients have metastases.

Last edited 05/2019

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