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Trigger factors are reported commonly but there is little consistency between
Dietary triggers affect about 20% of people (1).
have no obvious trigger, and some triggers that are identified are unavoidable.
Trigger factors include:
- bright lights
- certain foods:
- alcoholic drinks
- tyramine containing foodstuffs (cheese, citrus fruits, chocolate)
- food may be considered a trigger when:
- migraine onset occurs within 6 hours of consumption
- the effect is reproducible
- withdrawal leads to improvement
- extremes of weather (e.g. very hot or cold, strong winds)
- long distance travel
- loud noise
- missing meals
- strenuous unaccustomed exercise
- too much or too little sleep
- emotional stress and anxiety
Association for the Study of Headache (BASH) guidelines 2004
Last reviewed 05/2019