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All patients with typhoid and paratyphoid excrete the organisms at some stage
during their illness
- about 10% of patients with typhoid excrete S.
typhi for at least three months following the acute illness and 2–5% become long-term
carriers (more than one year). The likelihood of becoming a chronic carrier increases
with age, especially in females and those with biliary tract abnormality.
urinary carriage tends to only occur in the presence of urinary tract abnormalities,
and in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic, this may be significant.
The V1 antibody is present in approximately 70% of carriers (at 1:5 dilution).
This antibody occurs in only about 1% of the UK population.
Immunisation Against Infectious Disease - "The Green Book".Chapter 33 Typhoid
- Mandal, BH (1992), Salmonella Infections, Medicine International,
Last reviewed 02/2020