Glycolysis is a major pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. It consists of a series of 10 enzyme-catalyzed, non-saturated reactions which convert glucose into pyruvate. All the reactions take place within the cytoplasm of the cell.
Its key role is the production of energy and biosynthetic intermediates such as acetyl coenzyme A.
The last reaction in the pathway may be changed to lactate production at times of anaerobic stress. This provides a means of yielding short-term energy; the entire process is termed anaerobic respiration or anaerobic glycolysis. It may result in lactic acidosis.
The rate of glycolysis is largely controlled by the supply of substrate from gastrointestinal absorption or hepatic release. This is because physiologically the enzymes are non-saturated.
Last reviewed 01/2018