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2264 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 21/4/2021)


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abnormalities in bile constituents

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Cholesterol and mixed gallstones may precipitate out of solution owing to a rise in cholesterol or a decrease in bile salts.

Factors associated with a rise in cholesterol include:

  • obesity
  • age } especially between puberty
  • female sex } menopause in women
  • drugs such as oral contraceptives, clofibrate

Factors associated with a decrease in bile salts include:

  • any interruption to the enterohepatic circulation, e.g.:
    • gastrointestinal disease
    • small bowel or ileal resection or bypass
    • cholestyramine therapy

Last reviewed 01/2018

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