FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.
Excessive respiratory secretions can cause loud rattles in the airways and
throat. When in extremis, these crepitations are known as the death rattle.
If the patient (or, when the patient is comatose, the relatives and friends)
become very distressed by these.
Dying patients may be unable to cough effectively or swallow which can lead
to retained secretions in the upper respiratory tract. Noisy, bubbly breathing
may occur in 70% patients in the terminal phase. There is little evidence to
support the effectiveness of drug treatment for this symptom. However it is
established clinical practice to use anticholinergic drugs to try to reduce
the accumulation of further secretions.
- explanation and reassurance for relatives and carers is paramount
- repositioning the patient in bed may be very helpful, for example 'high
side lying' where the patient is positioned more upright with their head tilted
to one side to aid drainage of secretions. A fan may also be beneficial
- on occasion, for example where there is pooling of saliva in the oropharynx,
gentle suction may be appropriate
- hyoscine butylbromide and glycopyrronium do not usually cause drowsiness,
confusion and paradoxical excitation since they do not cross the blood-brain
Treatment options include repositioning, suction and the administration of
anticholinergic drugs. Various anticholinergic agents may be used in the management
of respiratory secretions (2):
- Hyoscine butylbromide (20mg s.c. stat; 60-120mg/24 hours s.c. infusion),
- Glycopyrronium bromide (0.2mg s.c. stat; 0.6-1.2 mg/24 hrs s.c. infusion),or,
- Hyoscine hydrobromide (0.4 mg s.c. stat; 1.2-2.4mg/24hrs s.c. infusion)
NICE also suggest atropine as an alternative in addition to those stated above
The respective summary of product characteristics must be consulted before
prescribing any of the drugs mentioned.
- when giving medicine for noisy respiratory secretions:
- monitor for improvements, preferably every 4 hours, but at least every
- monitor regularly for side effects, particularly delirium, agitation
or excessive sedation when using atropine or hyoscine hydrobromide
- treat side effects, such as dry mouth, delirium or sedation
- consider changing or stopping medicines if noisy respiratory secretions
continue and are still causing distress after 12 hours (medicines may take
up to 12 hours to become effective)
- consider changing or stopping medicines if unacceptable side effects, such
as dry mouth, urinary retention, delirium, agitation and unwanted levels of
- West Midlands Palliative Care Physicians (2007). Palliative care - guidelines
for the use of drugs in symptom control.
- West Midlands Palliative Care Physicians (2012). Palliative care - guidelines
for the use of drugs in symptoms control.
- NICE (December 2015).
Care of dying adults in the last days of life
Last reviewed 01/2018