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2630 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 17/4/2021)


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aetiology

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Possible causes include:

  • pulmonary venous congestion due to left ventricular failure in the presence of increased afterload, for example in aortic stenosis or coarctation of the aorta
  • an excessive preload - for example an abnormally high venous return due to a patent ductus or a ventricular septal defect
  • obstruction of the pulmonary venous return, for example cor triatriatum

Last reviewed 01/2018

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