FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.
Possible causes include:
- pulmonary venous congestion due to left ventricular failure in the presence of increased afterload, for example in aortic stenosis or coarctation of the aorta
- an excessive preload - for example an abnormally high venous return due to a patent ductus or a ventricular septal defect
- obstruction of the pulmonary venous return, for example cor triatriatum
Last reviewed 01/2018