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2693 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 13/4/2021)

2693 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 13/4/2021)


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  • urinary flow rate - in urinary outflow obstruction, the curve has a characteristic flattened appearance with a relatively unremarkable peak. Flow through a tube is proportional to the fourth power of the radius so a small reduction in luminal diameter produces a relatively large decrease in flow rate

  • urethrography - the use of contrast to outline the urethra. Retrograde and voiding studies are performed by instilling contrast through a small calibre Foley catheter lying in the distal end of the penile urethra. Antegrade studies can be performed through a suprapubic catheter. Information is obtained about:
    • site, length, extent and number of strictures
    • urethral patency following treatment

  • urethroscopy - endoscopic assessment of the urethra. During surgery, rigid scopes are used to inspect the urethral lining and the extent of stricture. Flexible scopes may be used in the outpatient setting for the purposes of diagnosis and follow-up

Last reviewed 01/2018

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