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2630 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 17/4/2021)

2630 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 17/4/2021)


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  • Schirmer test - for lack of lacrimal secretion i.e. keratoconjunctivis sicca

  • salivary gland biopsy:
    • Rose bengal and fluorescein staining - for lack of salivary secretion i.e. xerostomia
    • Sjogren's syndrome is diagnosed if there is more than one focus where there are more than 50 lymphocytes per 4 mm2 in the salivary tissues

  • blood tests:
    • FBC - normochromic normocytic anaemia and leucopenia; in about 10% of patients
    • raised ESR - in about 70% of patients
    • hypergammaglobulinaemia - in about 80% of patients
    • CRP - usually normal

  • autoantibodies:
    • anti-Ro and anti-La are found in 60% and 40% of cases respectively and are correlated with the presence of vasculitis; also found in SLE but with proportions of 25% and 10% respectively
    • rheumatoid factor is present in 80% of cases and in 20% of patients there are cryoglobulins with rheumatoid factor activity

Last reviewed 02/2021

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