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- bladder irritation - constant need to pass urine irrespective of the volume of urine in the bladder. Most commonly, due to infection - usually accompanied by dysuria, confirmed by microscopy on MSU.
- incomplete bladder emptying - voiding is incomplete, so bladder quickly reaches full capacity again. Most commonly, due to bladder outlet obstruction; also, neurological conditions e.g. multiple sclerosis, spinal trauma. Residual volume of urine after micturition predisposes to infection.
- detrusor instability - activation of voiding reflex before bladder is completely filled. Confirmed by urodynamics.
- small bladder - surgical resection, inflammatory fibrosis e.g. tuberculosis. See fluid volume record.
Last reviewed 01/2018