Treatment is essentially symptomatic. Hands and feet should be kept warm and regular chiropody offered. Any infection, dysphagia or hypertension should be treated. Different treatment regimes have been used in the management of this disease:
Raynaud's phenomenon may be successfully managed.
The disease may be mild or severe. The mean 5-year survival is about 70% in the absence of renal disease. Increasing levels of plasma renin may herald rapid deterioration.
Last reviewed 01/2018