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Calcium oxalate stones are hard stones usually with a sharp, spiky surface which traumatize the urinary epithelium.
- hypercalciuria without hypercalcaemia (50%)
- hypercalciuria with hypercalcaemia (10%):
- metastatic malignancy
- multiple myeloma
- vitamin D toxicity
- hyperuricosuria +/- hypercalcaemia (20%):
- associated with "nucleation" of calcium oxalate by uric acid crystals in the collecting ducts
Last reviewed 01/2018