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2698 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 12/4/2021)


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calcium oxalate stones

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Calcium oxalate stones are hard stones usually with a sharp, spiky surface which traumatize the urinary epithelium.

Causes include:

  • hypercalciuria without hypercalcaemia (50%)

  • hypercalciuria with hypercalcaemia (10%):
    • sarcoidosis
    • metastatic malignancy
    • multiple myeloma
    • vitamin D toxicity

  • hyperuricosuria +/- hypercalcaemia (20%):
    • associated with "nucleation" of calcium oxalate by uric acid crystals in the collecting ducts

  • hyperoxaluria (5%)

  • idiopathic (25%)

Last reviewed 01/2018

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