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2256 pages added, reviewed or updated during the last month (last updated: 20/4/2021)


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One sees the following signs and symptoms:

  • cyanosis
  • polycythaemia
  • easy fatigability
  • exertional dyspnoea
  • hypoxic episodes
  • pan-systolic murmur audible along the left sternal border
  • single second heart sound

Note that ccasionally one sees early congestive heart failure due to high pulmonary blood flow via a large VSD and patent right ventricular outflow tract. This is rare.

Last reviewed 01/2018

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