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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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Patients with stable angina pectoris have a 3 to 4% annual incidence of myocardial infarction and death and the principal therapies available (lifestyle modifications, medications, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting) have the primary aim of reducing the risk of death, myocardial infarction and stroke and improve quality of life by reducing symptoms (1)

Refractory (unstable) angina has a worse prognosis. Patients with refractory angina have a very poor quality of life with frequent hospitalizations, and therapeutic options have a low level of evidence in their favour (2)



1. Manfredi R et al. Angina in 2022: Current Perspectives. J Clin Med. 2022 Dec; 11(23): 689

2. Neumann F.J et al. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Coronary Syndromes. Eur. Heart J. 2020;41:407–477.

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