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Infective endocarditis frequently presents with vague early symptoms which delays diagnosis. The clinician should be alerted to the possibility of the disease if there are any of the following: (1)

  • known cardiac disease
  • unexplained febrile illness
  • unexplained cardiac failure
  • unexplained embolic events
  • unexplained neurologic illness, especially if febrile
  • unexplained raised ESR or anaemia
  • septicaemia
  • recent surgical or invasive procedures
  • haemodialysis
  • central IV lines
  • IV drug abuse

1. European Society of Cardiology (Aug 2023). 2023 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.

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