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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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Possible causes include:

  • congenital - by far the most common. Thick deformed bicuspid or tricuspid valves, sometimes associated with Noonan's syndrome, William's syndrome, or Fallot's tetralogy. Peripheral and valvular pulmonary stenosis may occur in rubella syndrome
  • rheumatic involvement of the pulmonary valve - rare
  • carcinoid tumours of the small bowel with hepatic metastases - these are associated with acquired thickening of valves on the right side of the heart

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