This site is intended for healthcare professionals

Go to /sign-in page

You can view 5 more pages before signing in

Clinical features

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Characteristically, flushing begins on the forehead, bridge of the nose and cheeks. The periorbital and perioral areas are generally spared. Occasionally, it tends to be more widespread affecting the neck and sometimes, may spread beyond the face and the neck areas.

Over a period of months or years, intermittent flushing is replaced by persistent erythema with papules or pustules. There are neither comedones nor seborrhoea. Soreness, burning, itching or stinging are common complaints.

Ocular involvement may occur (usually bilateral) and result in mild blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Patients may complain of a foreign body sensation(1). More seriously, there may be corneal ulceration and visual impairment. Ocular rosacea is the usual cause of posterior blepharitis.

Rhinophyma is a common complaint especially in males. The male: female ratio is approximately 20:1

The clinical features often overlap in rosacea, but in the majority of patients, a particular manifestation of rosacea dominates clinically. These can be divided into 4 subtypes:

  • erythemato-telangiectatic
  • papulo-pustular
  • phymatous
  • ocular
  • Note: each subtype may present as mild, moderate or severe


1. Gallo RL, Granstein RD, Kang S, et al. Standard classification and pathophysiology of rosacea: the 2017 update by the National Rosacea Society Expert Committee. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Jan;78(1):148-55.

Related pages

Create an account to add page annotations

Add information to this page that would be handy to have on hand during a consultation, such as a web address or phone number. This information will always be displayed when you visit this page

The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


Copyright 2024 Oxbridge Solutions Limited, a subsidiary of OmniaMed Communications Limited. All rights reserved. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence.