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The guidance regarding combination treatment of systemic hypertension has been updated (1):
BP targets in adults:
in people with CKD and diabetes, and also in people with an ACR of 70 mg/mmol or more, aim to keep the systolic blood pressure below 130 mmHg (target range 120-129 mmHg) and the diastolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg
Starting antihypertensive drug treatment
Offer antihypertensive drug treatment in addition to lifestyle advice to adults of any age with persistent stage 2 hypertension. Use clinical judgement for people of any age with frailty or multimorbidity.
Discuss starting antihypertensive drug treatment, in addition to lifestyle advice, with adults aged under 80 with persistent stage 1 hypertension who have 1 or more of the following:
Consider antihypertensive drug treatment in addition to lifestyle advice for adults aged under 60 with stage 1 hypertension and an estimated 10-year risk below 10%
Consider antihypertensive drug treatment in addition to lifestyle advice for people aged over 80 with a clinic blood pressure of over 150/90 mmHg
Measure standing as well as seated blood pressure in people with hypertension and:
Offer people with isolated systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure 160 mmHg or more) the same treatment as people with both raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure
For adults aged under 40 with hypertension, consider seeking specialist evaluation of secondary causes of hypertension and a more detailed assessment of the long-term balance of treatment benefit and risks
Suggested management for patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension (1):
1 For women considering pregnancy or who are pregnant or breastfeeding, see NICE's guideline on hypertension in pregnancy. For people with chronic kidney disease, see NICE's guideline on chronic kidney disease. For people with heart failure, see NICE's guideline on chronic heart failure
2See MHRA drug safety updates on ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists: not for use in pregnancy, which states 'Use in women who are planning pregnancy should be avoided unless absolutely necessary, in which case the potential risks and benefits should be discussed', ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists: use during breastfeeding and clarification: ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. See also NICE's guideline on hypertension in pregnancy.
3Consider an ARB, in preference to an ACE inhibitor in adults of African and Caribbean family origin.
4 At the time of publication (August 2019), not all preparations of spironolactone have a UK marketing authorisation for this indication.
Abbreviations: ABPM, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin-II receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; CCB, calcium-channel blocker; HBPM, home blood pressure monitoring.
NICE guidance states with respect to type 1 diabetes (2):
Blood pressure management
Do not allow concerns over potential side effects to inhibit advising and offering the necessary use of any class of drugs, unless the side effects become symptomatic or otherwise clinically significant. In particular: