This site is intended for healthcare professionals

Go to /sign-in page

You can view 5 more pages before signing in

Risk factors

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

The likelihood of developing ALD is dependent upon:

  • drinking pattern - daily drinking is more dangerous than intermittent consumption which enables the liver to recover. Also, the likelihood of ALD increases with the number of years of regular drinking.

  • sex - women are more susceptible to hepatic injury and are more likely to relapse after treatment. Blood ethanol levels following a standard dose of alcohol are higher in women than men. Women are also more likely to progress from hepatitis to cirrhosis even if they stop drinking.

  • genetic - twin studies show that half of the variability in susceptibility to ALD is genetic. However, no single genetic marker has been identified. The genetic differences are probably in the enzyme systems which metabolise alcohol i.e. the alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol oxidising system. The MEOS is inactive in Orientals and accounts for their poor tolerance.

  • nutrition - poor nutrition and alcohol hepato-toxicity act synergistically. Alcohol may increase requirements for nutrients such as choline and folic acid. Nutritional deficiency, especially of protein, may enhance alcohol toxicity by depleting hepatic amino acids and enzymes.

  • coexistence of viral infections (hepatitis B and C) increases the severity of ALD

Create an account to add page annotations

Add information to this page that would be handy to have on hand during a consultation, such as a web address or phone number. This information will always be displayed when you visit this page

The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


Copyright 2024 Oxbridge Solutions Limited, a subsidiary of OmniaMed Communications Limited. All rights reserved. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence.