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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Contraindications include:

  • beta-blockers
  • hypotension
  • bradycardia
  • second and third degree heart block
  • sick sinus syndrome
  • cardiogenic shock
  • ventricular tachycardia
  • a history of heart failure or impaired function
  • atrial flutter or fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
  • porphyria

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