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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

  • abdominal examination - for an enlarged bladder or loaded colon

  • pelvic examination
    • with attention to the urethra and bladder neck
    • assessment of pelvic floor muscles
      • undertake routine digital assessment to confirm pelvic floor muscle contraction before the use of supervised pelvic floor muscle training for the treatment of urinary incontinence (1)

  • consider neurological examination depending on context of presenting complaint:
    • consider assessment of sacral reflexes - for example, anal reflex, bulbocavernous reflex
    • lower limb reflexes, motor and sensory function - as innervation to the lower urinary tract is closely related to that of the lower extremities


  1. NICE (April 2019). Urinary incontinence - The management of urinary incontinence in women

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