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Protective factors

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Factors thought to be protective against PID include:

  • pregnancy - blocks tubes of the upper genital tract
  • sterilisation
  • combined oral contraceptive pill - increases vaginal secretion of mucus so helping to protect against infection; not protective against chlamydial infection
  • barrier contraception - condom, diaphragm; protect against upper genital tract infection


  1. Henderson JT et al. Behavioural counselling interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US preventive services task force. JAMA. 2020 Aug 18;324(7):682-99.
  2. Public Health England. Health matters: preventing STIs. Aug 2019 [internet publication].

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