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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Investigations include: (1)

  • chest X-ray
  • white cell count is normal or mild leucocytosis - with increase in early granulocyte forms; rarely above 15 x 10^9/l.
  • hyponatraemia and hypoalbuminaemia in up to 50%
  • abnormal LFT's
  • gram stain does not detect the organism
  • urine testing may reveal haematuria

Diagnosis is confirmed by:

  • urinary antigen detection
  • change in antibody titre, with a four fold increase at 2 to 5 weeks
  • immuno-flourescent staining of the organism in the pleural fluid, sputum or bronchial washings
  1. Annotated BTS Guideline for the management of CAP in adults. British Thoracic Society (2009 - Summary of recommendations updated 2015)

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