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The vast majority of urinary tract infections occur in women. Unexpected urinary tract infections occur in patients such as children or young men
A patient with an unexpected UTI require further investigation e.g. renal ultrasound, cystoscopy. There may be a pathological or structural abnormality found e.g. urethral stricture, bladder stone, prostatic hypertrophy. In many cases no predisposing factors are found.
Recurrent infections are treated with antibiotics. In some instances there may be the requirement for long-term low dose antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrence.
Further investigation is also indicated if a UTI does not respond to simple treatment measures.