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Clinical features

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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The clinical features of hypertensive encephalopathy can be divided up on a temporal basis. Their onset is usually rapid, but not instantaneous:

Early features include:

  • headache
  • nausea and vomiting
  • confusion
  • retinal haemorrhages, exudates or papilloedema
  • impairment of vision or blindness

Late features include:

  • focal neurological signs
  • fits
  • coma
  • proteinuria and evidence of renal and cardiac failure according to underlying cause
  • rarely fever and cervical rigidity

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The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


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