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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Investigations include:

  • serum electrolytes:
    • chloride - low (50 to 80 mmol/l)
    • potassium - usually low
    • alkalosis
  • confirmation by stool electrolytes, with extremely high chloride - greater than 150mmol/l, exceeding the sum of the sodium and potassium concentrations
  • chloride virtually absent from urine

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