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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Abdominal causes:

  • postoperative
  • peritonitis
  • vascular occlusion

Systemic causes:

  • hypokalaemia
  • hypomagnesaemia
  • uraemia
  • diabetic ketoacidosis
  • hypothyroidism


  • anticholinergics
  • tricyclic antidepressants
  • anti-Parkinsonian drugs

Reflex causes:

  • postpartum
  • renal colic
  • retroperitoneal haemorrhage
  • fractured vertebrae

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