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Clinical features

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Possible clinical features include:

  • oliguria or anuria

  • uraemia:
    • nausea and vomiting
    • anorexia

  • confusion

  • fluid retention:
    • peripheral oedema
    • increasing breathlessness - pulmonary oedema, pleural effusions

  • if the patient is volume depleted then postural hypotension and dehydration may be noted

  • frequently non-oliguric acute renal failure is first noticed because of symptoms of electrolyte abnormality

Other clinical features may relate to the cause of the renal failure for example:

  • drug hypersensitivity - generalised rash and polyarthropathy
  • rhabdomyolysis - muscle pain, for example, heroin abuse
  • Goodpasture's syndrome - dyspnoea and haemoptysis
  • malignant hypertension or diabetes - retinal changes
  • hepatorenal failure - jaundice and stigmata of liver disease

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