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Cystoscopy is, literally, using an endoscope passed transurethrally to visualise the bladder.

In day-to-day urological practice there are three sorts:

  • cystoscopy, used to describe a diagnostic investigation carried out as a result of symptoms

  • check cystoscopy, which is a routine follow up of a patient with previously diagnosed and treated bladder tumour

  • flexible cystoscopy, which uses a flexible endoscope and can be carried out under a local anasthetic (a local anaesthetic gel is used to numb the urethra). The disadvantages, however, are that the procedure is only investigative, and cannot proceed easily to transurethral resection of visible lesions.

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