This site is intended for healthcare professionals

Go to /sign-in page

You can view 5 more pages before signing in

PH on urine dipstick

Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team


  • The pH of normal urine is generally in the range 4.6 - 8, a typical average being around 6.0

    • much of the variation is due to diet
      • for example, high protein diets result in more acidic urine, but vegetarian diets generally result in more alkaline urine (both within the typical range 4.6 - 8)

    • alkaline urine is associated with infection with urease-splitting organisms (e.g. Proteus, Klebsiella)
      • urea splitting bacteria are related to the formation of struvite-apatite
        • struvite stones are potentiated by bacterial infection that hydrolyzes urea to ammonium and raises urine pH to neutral or alkaline values
        • upper urinary tract stones that involve the renal pelvis and extend into at least 2 calyces are classified as staghorn calculi
          • although all types of urinary stones can potentially form staghorn calculi, approximately 75% are composed of a struvite-carbonate-apatite matrix

    • urine pH generally reflects the blood pH but this is not the case in renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
      • type 1 RTA (distal) the urine is acidic but the blood alkaline
      • type 2 RTA (proximal) the urine is initially alkaline
        • however urine becomes more acidic as the disease progresses


Related pages

Create an account to add page annotations

Add information to this page that would be handy to have on hand during a consultation, such as a web address or phone number. This information will always be displayed when you visit this page