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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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  • chest radiology
  • white cells - raised; often greater than 15 x 10^9 per litre
  • ESR - raised; may exceed 100 mm in an hour
  • CRP - raised

Sputum examination and culture, and blood culture - positive in 25-40% of cases, are essential in management of a patient with pneumonia. It may possible to demonstrate pneumococcal antigen in both blood and sputum.


Song JY et al. Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia: Current Pitfalls and the Way Forward. Infection and Chemotherapy Dec 2013.

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