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The mortality may be as high as 25% - especially in patients who are bacteraemic.

A pleural effusion is more often associated with pneumococcal pneumonia than other pneumonias.

An empyema is seen in 3% of patients with positive blood cultures.

Other complications include:

  • septic arthritis
  • pericarditis
  • endocarditis
  • peritonitis
  • cellulitis
  • meningitis


Chen H. et al. Prognostic factors for mortality in invasive pneumococcal disease in adult: a system review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports 2021.

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