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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

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Both passive and active movements of the foot are analysed:

  • ask the patient to stand on tiptoes, to walk normally and to walk on tiptoes in both shoes and barefeet while viewed from different perspecives, observing:
    • gait
    • balance
    • which side of foot bears weight

  • passively move toes, mid-tarsal, subtalar and ankle joints to assess gross mobility
    • 1st, 4th and 5th metatarsal heads are tested for mobility by steadying the heel with one hand while moving with the other in dorsal and plantar directions

  • active movements should be measured:
    • inversion: normal range is approximately 35 degrees
    • eversion: normal range is approximately 20 degrees
    • great toe M-P flexion and extension normal ranges respectively 40 and 65 degrees respectively

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