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Peroxisomes are round or oval cytoplasmic structures of approximately 0.1-0.4 micrometre diameter. They are surrounded by a single membrane. They are formed from molecules present within the cytoplasm.

Peroxisomes are thought to be involved in the degradation of a number of cellular molecules e.g. purines and some amino acids. Consequently, they contain a number of oxidase enzymes. Hydrogen peroxide is formed from their reactions and as such, the peroxisome also contains the enzyme catalase. Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

Peroxisomes are very abundant in hepatic and renal cells.

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